Abiotic Nature

Welcome   Introduction   Mountain Streams   Fauna and Flora   Natura 2000   Forrest   Abiotic Nature

                                         ŠOP SR    NP Malá Fatra   Rajec   Návrat rysov


Abiotic nature: In terms of geological composition, the Malá Fatra Mts. belongs to core, thus crystalloid-secondary mountains with crystalloid core and coat consisting of secondary sedimentary rocks. The crystalloid core of the Malá Fatra Mts. is created by schist (especially gneiss and paragneiss), granite (biotitic granodiorite to quartz diorite of Ďumbier type), granodiorites and granite of Magura type. The rocks of crystalline basement are represented on southern slopes of the mountains from the Kúr valley through Starý Hrad up to the Bystrička valley, including Šútovská valley. In the northern part they rise up in one erosive window in Vrátna, eastward from the cottage Vrátna. The crystalline basement of the Malá Fatra Mts. is characterized by a low occurrence of ores. On the opposite, northern, part of the mountains the core creates a mesozoic coat. The sub-tatra nappes of Mesozoic era, križňanský and chočský, cover the main ridge as well as the northern part of the mountains. A major part of the chočský nappe is formed by dolomites. A big diversity of geological shapes is bound to the uncommonly varied geological bedrock of the Malá Fatra Mts. The nappes consist mostly of limestone, dolomite, quartzite, sandstone, and marl. The various geological bedrock and the different mineral resistance against slackening, especially mesozoic coat, determined the broken terrain with characteristic reefs. Erosion created gulleys, various stone creations and cliffy ridges. This terrain contrasts with the less broken and rounded surface of more easily slackening minerals. The most shaped terrain is on dolomite substrates. Underground carst phenomena are developed on limestones. From the geomorphological point of view, the spring place Mojžišove pramene, which represents a regular source of water for Šútovský waterfall belongs to the peculiarities of Šútovská valley. A wild gulley Tesnô, northward from the waterfall, belongs to interesting shapes of the relief on the crystalline basement.  The Šútovská valley is bordered by marked peaks which mold a nice view of landscape. The elevation differences of the hiking trails in the Malá Fatra Mts. ranging from 340 to 1709 m are very misleading and the severity of these paths compares to much higher mountains.

Hydrology: The suitable climatic conditions, high precipitation volumes and the geological-morphological conditions determine the considerable run-off from the area. The area of the Malá Fatra belongs to the basin of the Váh river. The characteristic feature of the streams in the Malá Fatra Mts. is their deep penetration into the mountains, the intensity of the falling gradient and the mostly torrential character of mountain streams and brooks. Their tilt changes depending on altitude and geological bedrock. On several localities numerous waterfalls were created such as Šútovský waterfall which is 38 meters high. The intensity of the falling gradient of the area in relatively short valleys is due to the high superelevation – a difference between the highest and the lowest place in the National Park is more than 1 300 meters. The main reason for the high water flows in the surface streams are rain and snowfalls and in the area with higher occurrence of limestone also ground water. The highest monthly flow volumes are in April which is mostly related with snow melting. High water also flows in May, June, and July due to the highest amount of precipitation. On the other side, the lowest monthly flow volumes are in September, eventually in January when due to cold weather the water cumulates in form of snow and ice. The deeply penetrating brooks divided Krivánska Fatra Mts. into long saddlebows and the brooks also shaped long and marked valleys which look as sliced into the mountains. The length of the Šútovský potok brook to the mouth of Krpelianska priehrada dam is 7.8 km.

While hiking “especially during winter” do not

overestimate your strength, do not underrate

your equipment and quick weather changes!


Tomáš Hulík, Miloš Majda, Miloš Majda ml., Andrej Zahradník, Daniel Podbrežný,

Zuzana Pánisová, Peter Cáder, Anna Dobošová

Photo: Tomáš Hulík, Miloš Majda